Quantitative Geomorphological Parameters Analysis for the Aynalem- Illala Streams, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia


  • Fethangest Weldemariyam Tesema Mekelle University Author
  • Gebrerufael Hailu Kahsay Author
  • Berihu Abadi Berhe Author


Hydrogeology, Morphometric analysis, Aynalem, Illala, Tigray, Ethiopia


Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the surface, shape, and dimension of landforms. The objective of this study is to characterize the Aynalem and Illala streams using the morphometric parameter. The topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000 taken from the Ethiopian National Mapping Agency was used to characterize the linear and areal aspects. ASTER Digital Elevation Model with 10m resolution was used to characterize the relief aspect. The Arc GIS 10.4.1 was used during the morphometric analysis. The analysis result of the streams is summarized based on the linear, areal, and relief aspects. The area is characterized by a dendritic drainage pattern which is characteristics of massive hard rock terrain. The Aynalem and Illala streams are 4th and 5th order streams. Considering the number of streams in the Aynalem (75.81%) and Illala (74.66%) is composed of first-order streams that indicate a flashy flood and the mean bifurcation value of Aynalem (6.8) and Illala (4.7) shows that the Aynalem area is more structurally affected than Illala but both show less stream integration. The analysis of areal aspects such as elongation ratio, circularity ratio, and form factor has indicated that both streams are characterized as elongated streams, this implies that both streams are flowing in heterogeneous rock material, presences of structural effect, and slow runoff discharge.  The other areal aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, infiltration number, and length of overland flow all show smaller values in both streams. This implies that the streams are characterized by a relatively permeable rock material with a higher infiltration capacity. The relief aspect of the Aynalem and Illala was also analyzed using basin relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric curves, and Hypsometric integral. The streams are characterized by a lower relief ratio and ruggedness number which implies a relatively flat slope and lower relief. The hypsometric curves and the Hypsometric Integral of the streams indicate that the Aynalem and Illala are at the maturity stage. This shows the area is characterized by higher erosion but less affected by recent structures. Based on the morphometric parameter analysis result it is possible to conclude that the stream development is dependent on the topography and geology of the study area and both streams show similar morphometric character.




How to Cite

Quantitative Geomorphological Parameters Analysis for the Aynalem- Illala Streams, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. (2024). Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) , 13(1), 67-88. https://journal.mu.edu.et/index.php/mejs/article/view/301